A Swaging machine is a tool used to form and expand metal wires, rods and tubes. This forming process uses the application of radial compressive force to reduce or expand the outer diameter of the tube and subsequently change its shape. This is accomplished by using a mandrel to control the amount of pressure applied to the workpiece, which allows for greater precision and better quality than hammer swaging or cold forming. Swaging machines range in size from small, portable hand-operated devices for service level swaging needs to large hydraulic swaging machines capable of high volume production.
The main types of swaging machine processes are external swaging, internal swaging, and combination swaging. External swaging is commonly used to attach fittings to cable or tubing ends. The swaging process is also used to form a tapered end on a tube and for securing ferrules on steel wire ropes and electrical cables. The internal swaging process is typically used to create a specific cross-section in tube by compressing the ends of the tube. Combination swaging is a technique that is a hybrid of both external and internal swaging, and it provides more control over wall thickness throughout the entire swaging process than either of its counterparts.
FENN is the industry leader in designing and engineering metal forming solutions that can be utilized for swaging applications. The company offers multiple swaging machines that can be customized to the exact specifications required by each customer. These are available in both rotary and stationary die versions. The rotary swager is a common choice for pointing, sizing and forming metal wires, rods and tubes. In this swaging machine, forming dies backed by hammer blocks revolve around the workpiece. Each time a hammer block strikes a diametrically opposite roller, the resulting centrifugal force tosses the hammers and presses the die halves together. Rotary swagers are available with 2-die or 4-die configurations, with the 2-die version generally being used for pointing. The 4-die configuration is used for higher initial reductions.
This type of swaging machine is used to produce both hot and cold swaging operations. Cold swaging is commonly used with aluminum, copper and thin steel. This swaging method is generally performed at elevated temperatures because the ductility of these materials are low at room temperature. Cold swaging can be used to achieve longer or steeper tapers and larger reductions.
This type of swaging machine uses two or four split dies that separate and close up to 2,000 times a minute. The dies are mounted to a spindle that is located inside of a cage of rollers, and as the spindle rotates they are pushed out to ride on the cage by the radial force produced by the centrifugal action. This enables the dies to be swaged on circular workpieces with a rounded section and produce square, rectangular and polygon sections. The final swage is much stronger than the initial workpiece, and it is capable of accommodating additional insertions.